Although a large number of novel broadly neutralizing antibodies has been recently described, the induction of such antibodies via vaccination has proven difficult. By contrast, nonneutralizing antibodies arise early during infection and have been repeatedly associated with both protection from infection and disease progression.
We are beginning to gain new insights into the broader landscape of antiviral mechanisms that nonneutralizing antibodies may harness to fight HIV, providing an unprecedented breadth of approaches by which HIV can be blocked and contained.
In this review, we summarize the characteristics of nonneutralizing antibodies, their role in HIV infection, and new paradigm-shifting functions that may be exploited by next-generation vaccine approaches aimed at blocking HIV infection.
aUniversity of California, Irvine, California
bDepartment of Cell & Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
cRagon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Correspondence to Galit Alter, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Tel: +1 857 268 7003; e-mail: GALTER@partners.org