Monitoring cellular immune markers in HIV infection: from activation to exhaustionSauce, Delphine; Elbim, Carole; Appay, VictorCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: March 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 2 - p 125–131 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32835d08a9 NEW ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGICAL AND VIROLOGICAL MONITORING: Edited by Alan L. Landay and Tae-Wook Chun Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The pathogenesis of HIV infection is highly complex and involves numerous actors of the immune system. On the one hand, our immunity has a predominant role in limiting HIV replication and the depletion of its targets, but on the other hand, the persistent infection established by the virus is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation, potentially resulting in the progressive exhaustion of the host immune resources, and in the onset of non-AIDS-defining comorbidities. The thorough study of HIV pathogenesis is increasingly more challenging. Recent findings New knowledge together with technological advances offers the possibility to monitor a constellation of cellular immune markers. Here, we discuss the relevance of studying these markers in order to assess the efficacy to control HIV, the inflammatory response to HIV infection, and the alteration and exhaustion of the immune compartments. Summary Monitoring these cellular immune markers is important to reach a deeper understanding of HIV pathogenesis and to perform a comprehensive clinical follow-up of HIV-infected patients. INSERM UMR-S 945, Infections and Immunity, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, France Correspondence to Delphine Sauce, INSERM UMR-S 945, Infections and Immunity, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013 Paris, France. Tel: +33 1 40 77 98 89; fax: +33 1 42 17 74 90; e-mail: email@example.com © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.