Profiling immunity to HIV vaccines with systems biologyAndersen-Nissen, Erica; Heit, Antje; McElrath, M. JulianaCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: January 2012 - Volume 7 - Issue 1 - p 32–37 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32834ddcd9 SYSTEMS BIOLOGY IN UNDERSTANDING HIV PATHOGENESIS AND GUIDING VACCINE DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Rafick-Pierre Sékaly and Bali Pulendran Abstract Author Information Purpose of review The recent modest success of the RV144 HIV vaccine trial in Thailand has shown that development of an HIV vaccine is possible. Designing a vaccine that achieves better protection, however, will require a more complete understanding of vaccine mechanisms of action and correlates of protection. Systems biology approaches enable integration of large datasets from a variety of assays and offer new approaches to understanding how vaccine-induced immune responses are coordinately regulated. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in clinical trial design, specimen collection, and assay standardization that will generate datasets for systems analyses of immune responses to HIV vaccines. Recent findings Several recently published HIV vaccine trials have shown that different HIV vaccine prime/boost combinations can greatly affect the immune response generated, but mechanistic insights into their modes of action are lacking. Novel systems biology studies of efficacious, licensed vaccines provide a new template for analysis of HIV vaccines. To generate datasets appropriate for systems analysis, current HIV vaccine clinical trials are undergoing design modifications and increased standardization of specimen collection and immune response assays. Summary Systems biology approaches to HIV vaccine evaluation are driving new methods of HIV vaccine immune response profiling in clinical trials and will hopefully lead to new improved HIV vaccines in the near future. Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA Correspondence to M. Juliana McElrath, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, D3-100, PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. Tel: +1 206 667 6703; e-mail: email@example.com © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.