Purpose of review
To discuss new antiretroviral agents (ARVs) and alternative ARV treatment strategies that are currently being evaluated, and to provide an overview of the most recent advances in HIV vaccine development.
There is a continuous need for improvements in ARV therapy (ART) and several new ARVs are currently undergoing clinical investigation, including the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine, the integrase inhibitor elvitegravir, the chemokine receptor 5 co-receptor antagonist vicriviroc and the maturation inhibitor bevirimat. Strategies to optimize ART, such as treatment interruption, induction-maintenance and class-sparing regimens, are also being evaluated and have had varying success to date. However, vaccination still remains the optimal solution, and one second-generation preventative HIV vaccine has produced encouraging results in a recent phase III trial.
Global prevention and treatment with ARVs that are effective, well tolerated and have high barriers to the development of HIV resistance are the main strategies to fight HIV/AIDS while we await the development of an effective vaccine.