The purpose of this review is to present recent results on biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and to review studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV infection.
Several inflammatory as well as lipid biomarkers are associated with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported elevated in patients with HIV. Additionally, interleukin-6 and D-dimer have been reported to predict overall mortality among individuals with HIV. However, the utility of other biomarkers to predict CVD among individuals with HIV infection is not clear.
The risk of CVD is increasing in the HIV-infected population and will increase as this population continues to age. Identification of intermediate-risk individuals using biomarkers will be an important tool for clinicians in the future to be able to treat HIV-infected individuals aggressively. Future studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV will be needed to help determine the utility of specific markers in predicting CVD risk as well as the mechanism underlying increased CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection.
aCopenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
bDivision of Cardiology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA
Correspondence to Signe W. Worm, MD, PhD, Copenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Building 21.1., Blegdamsvej 3B, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark Tel: +45 3545 55757; fax: +45 3545 5758; e-mail: email@example.com