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Role of biomarkers in predicting CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection?

Worm, Signe Wa; Hsue, Priscillab

Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: November 2010 - Volume 5 - Issue 6 - p 467–472
doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833f2ea6
Biomarkers of outcomes of disease, treatment and complications: Edited by H. Clifford Lane and Jens D. Lundgren

Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to present recent results on biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and to review studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV infection.

Recent findings Several inflammatory as well as lipid biomarkers are associated with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported elevated in patients with HIV. Additionally, interleukin-6 and D-dimer have been reported to predict overall mortality among individuals with HIV. However, the utility of other biomarkers to predict CVD among individuals with HIV infection is not clear.

Summary The risk of CVD is increasing in the HIV-infected population and will increase as this population continues to age. Identification of intermediate-risk individuals using biomarkers will be an important tool for clinicians in the future to be able to treat HIV-infected individuals aggressively. Future studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV will be needed to help determine the utility of specific markers in predicting CVD risk as well as the mechanism underlying increased CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection.

aCopenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

bDivision of Cardiology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA

Correspondence to Signe W. Worm, MD, PhD, Copenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Building 21.1., Blegdamsvej 3B, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark Tel: +45 3545 55757; fax: +45 3545 5758; e-mail:

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.