HIV vaccines after STEP: Edited by Susan P. Buchbinder and Lawrence Corey and James KublinRole of adjuvants in modeling the immune responseCarter, Darricka,c; Reed, Steven Ga,bAuthor Information aInfectious Disease Research Institute, USA bImmune Design Corporation, USA cProtein Advances Incorporated, Seattle, Washington, USA Correspondence to Steven G. Reed, PhD, Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia St, Suite #400, Seattle, WA 98104, USA Tel: +1 206 381 0883; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: September 2010 - Volume 5 - Issue 5 - p 409-413 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833d2cdb Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Recent clinical trial results have indicated that it may be possible for vaccines to induce protection against HIV. To build on this result, strategies should be designed to enhance duration, breadth, and magnitude of antibody production. Strategic formulation of agonists of the innate immune system and carriers that selectively present the target antigen yields a class of pharmaceuticals, named ‘adjuvants’, that greatly influence immunity resulting from vaccination. As researchers begin to focus not only on creating an immune response to an antigen, but also on the quality of that response, the role of adjuvants is becoming increasingly significant. This review is intended to give an overview of recent findings on how adjuvants model the immune response to antigens with a focus on the field of vaccines for HIV. Recent findings It is clear that innate and adaptive immunity are linked by communication channels that allow innate signals to influence the quality of adaptive responses as well as adaptive signals that temper innate responses. Adjuvants take advantage of this bridge to shape the immune response to antigens. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of adjuvants currently available; recent findings on the relationship between adjuvants and the type of immune profile generated; and the breadth of neutralizing antibodies as influenced by adjuvants. Summary Because adjuvants influence the breadth of antibodies generated and the type of cells that proliferate in response to a vaccine this review is relevant for scientists clinicians involved in creating a new HIV vaccine. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.