HIV vaccines after STEP: Edited by Susan P. Buchbinder and Lawrence Corey and James KublinIs developing an HIV-1 vaccine possible?Haynes, Barton Fa,b,c; Liao, Hua-Xina,b; Tomaras, Georgia Da,c,d,eAuthor Information aDuke Human Vaccine Institute, USA bDepartments of Medicine, USA cImmunology, USA dSurgery, USA eMolecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Dr Barton F. Haynes, MD, DUMNC 103020, 106 Research Drive, MSRBII, Durham, NC 27710, USA Tel: +1 919 684 5279; fax: +1 919 684 5230; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS: September 2010 - Volume 5 - Issue 5 - p 362-367 doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833d2e90 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review discusses select recent data that suggest that indeed it is possible to make a clinically useful preventive vaccine for HIV-1 and outlines some of the remaining obstacles that stand in the way of success. Recent findings Passive protection studies, with broad neutralizing antibodies for mucosal simian-HIV challenges, in nonhuman primates have suggested that lower doses of neutralizing antibodies than previously thought may be effective in preventing HIV-1 infection. The use of recombinant antibody technology coupled with the ability to culture single memory B cells has yielded new broad neutralizing antibodies and new targets for vaccine design. The success of the RV144 Thai HIV-1 efficacy trials with a replication-defective recombinant canarypox vector (ALVAC)/gp120 prime, clade B/E recombinant gp120 protein boost showing 31% efficacy has given hope that indeed a protective HIV-1 vaccine can be made. Summary Recent data in the last year have provided new hope that a clinically useful preventive HIV-1 vaccine can potentially be made. The path forward will require development of improved immunogens, understanding the correlates of protection to HIV-1, and development of immunogens to induce antibodies that can prevent the initial stages of HIV-1 infection at mucosal sites, in order to improve on the RV144 trial results. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.