The promise and challenge of anti-HIV cellular immunityBorrow, Persephone; Turnbull, Emma LCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS: July 2006 - Volume 1 - Issue 4 - p 277–285 doi: 10.1097/01.COH.0000232342.85414.7c HIV vaccines: Basic science Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review We discuss recent studies giving insight into the promise of cell-mediated immunity for prophylactic HIV vaccine strategies, and challenges to be overcome for this approach to succeed. Recent findings Advances in understanding of events in very early HIV infection and their importance in viral pathogenesis emphasize the rapidity with which vaccine-induced T-cell responses must act to modulate CD4+ cell destruction, but also reveal an early window of opportunity when foci of infection are limited and could potentially be eliminated. Super-infection with diverse HIV strains is now appreciated to be relatively common, indicating that cell-mediated responses in most infected individuals do not confer protection. Recent studies suggest that T-cell correlates of good control of HIV replication may be a consequence rather than a cause of containment of viraemia. Analysis of features of HIV-specific T-cell responses restricted by human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with differential prognosis of infection is giving insight into correlates of protection. The importance of efficacious responses, escape from which incurs high fitness costs, is increasingly appreciated. Summary There are many challenges to be overcome before the promise of cell-mediated immunity for HIV vaccines is realized. Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford and The Edward Jenner Institute, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire, UK Correspondence to Persephone Borrow, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, The Edward Jenner Institute, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK Tel: +44 (0)1635 577913; fax: +44 (0)1635 577901; e-mail: email@example.com © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.