Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have emerged as modulators of conditioning-induced tissue damage and development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This review highlights experimental and clinical evidence for a role of ILC in GVHD pathogenesis.
ILC are well known for their role in epithelial homeostasis and innate immunity. In addition, recent studies identified ILC as architects of intestinal responses to tissue damage after experimental radio and chemotherapy. Group 3 ILC, and their signature cytokine IL-22, can enhance intestinal stem cell regeneration and protect the stem cell niche from damage during experimental HSCT. Moreover, in leukemia patients undergoing HSCT conditioning, appearance of activated group 3 ILC prior to transplant is correlated to reduced incidence of acute GVHD.
ILC have a profound impact on the recovery from tissue damage and severity of GVHD in experimental models. Together with the available data from leukemia patients, this argues for in-depth analysis of the mechanisms of ILC function and the translation of experimental findings to clinical application. Ultimately, control of ILC activation, or of the cytokines they produce, could be employed to reduce GVHD lesion in patients receiving allogeneic HSCT.
Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Correspondence to Tom Cupedo, Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 10 704 4082; e-mail: email@example.com