The goal of this review is to provide updates on the causes, manifestations and therapies IFALD in adults with an emphasis on recent discoveries on pathways of pathogenesis and interventions to reduce the incidence of IFALD.
IFALD is a multifactorial complication of long-term home parenteral therapy. Although exact pathways are unknown, altered bile acid metabolism, microbiome dysbiosis impact on the gut–liver axis and soybean-based lipid formulations are major drivers of IFALD development.
IFALD contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients on parenteral nutrition. Proactive management by a multidisciplinary team has led to improved outcomes in at-risk patients. Attention to early treatment and prevention of sepsis, introduction of nonsoybean based lipid formulations, surgical procedures such as step enteroplasties and, potentially, microbiome dysbiosis are considerations in IFLAD management.
aDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, MSB 5533, 982000 The Nebraska Medical Center
bDepartment of Clinical Nutrition, 981200 Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Correspondence to Fedja A. Rochling, MB, BCh (NUI), MBA, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, MSB 5533, 982000 The Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-2000, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org