LARGE INTESTINE: Edited by Eamonn M.M. QuigleyApproach to the patient with infectious colitis: clinical features, work-up and treatmentIqbal, Tehseena; DuPont, Herbert L.a,b,c,d,eAuthor Information aUniversity of Texas School of Public Health bUniversity of Texas McGovern Medical School cKelsey Research Foundation dBaylor College of Medicine eMD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA Correspondence to Herbert L. DuPont, MD, MACP, 1200 Pressler St, Houston, TX 77030, USA.. Tel: +1 713 500 9366; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: January 2021 - Volume 37 - Issue 1 - p 66-75 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000693 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To provide the definition, causes, and current recommendations for workup and treatment of acute infectious colitis in adults, a common medical problem of diverse cause. Recent findings The management of acute colitis in adults depend upon establishment of cause. Most forms of infectious colitis are treatable with antimicrobials. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by guided culture on PCR-positive pathogens can often confirm active infection while standard culture methods provide isolates for antibiotic susceptibility testing, subtyping, and Whole Genome Sequencing. Summary Patients with colitis may be suffering from a range of etiologies including infectious colitis, neutropenic colitis, drug-induced colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The present review was prepared to provide an approach to prompt diagnosis and management of acute colitis to prevent severe complications (e.g. dehydration and malnutrition, or toxic megacolon) and provide recommendations for antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.