Purpose of review Trace elements
are vital components involved in major body functions. Cases of trace elements deficiencies
are increasingly encountered in clinical practice, although often underrecognized. This review gives a thorough insight into the newest findings on clinical situations associated with trace elements deficiencies
in children and adults, their recognition
Recent findings Trace elements deficiencies
are frequently found in various conditions, most commonly in burns, bariatric surgery, intestinal failure, renal replacement therapy, oncology, critical illness and cardiac surgery. The main trace elements
involved are selenium, zinc, copper and iron. Trace elements deficiencies
are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recognition
of clinical signs of trace elements deficiencies
can be challenging. Although trace elements
supplementation is indisputable in many circumstances, it is still debatable in other situations such as sepsis and cardiac surgery.
Recent findings on trace elements deficiencies
could have important implications on health outcomes. Trace elements
delivery is a core component of nutritional care. Front-line clinicians should be aware of at-risk clinical situations to provide correct and timely intervention. Future research should be directed towards investigating the potential benefits of antioxidant trace elements
supplementation in children in whom studies are scarce, especially in critical conditions such as burns, sepsis and cardiac surgery.