Purpose of review Pouchitis
is the most common complication in patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), occurring more frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis
– the inflammation of the pouch – can be due to idiopathic or secondary causes. Chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis
(CADP) and chronic antibiotic-resistant pouchitis
(CARP) are the most difficult forms of chronic idiopathic pouchitis
to treat. Crohn's disease of the pouch may develop de novo
in ulcerative colitis patients following colectomy with IPAA. It carries a high risk for pouch failure, and its diagnosis and management are challenging. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the present trends in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pouchitis
and Crohn's disease of the pouch.
The use of the newer biologic agents, vedolizumab and ustekinumab, has shown promising results in patients with CADP, CARP, and Crohn's disease of the pouch. Fecal microbiota transplantation has also been reported to have encouraging preliminary results in small studies and case series for the treatment of chronic pouchitis
Promising new treatments are emerging for difficult-to-treat forms of pouchitis
. Larger prospective and head-to-head comparative studies among the various treatments are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents across the pouchitis
subgroups, and to identify predictors of response.