Immunology of pancreatitis and environmental factorsLee, Bomi*; Zhao, Qinglan*; Habtezion, AidaCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology: September 2017 - Volume 33 - Issue 5 - p 383–389 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000387 PANCREAS: Edited by Rodger Liddle Abstract Author Information Purpose of review This report reviews recent aspects of pancreatitis immunology and environmental factors that link to development and progression of disease. Recent findings Limited human and animal model studies have recently attempted to understand immune mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Based on these studies innate immune responses emerge as critical elements in disease pathogenesis and severity of inflammation. The immune basis for environmental factors such as smoking, which are highly associated with disease progression highlight novel cross talk mechanisms between immune and nonimmune pancreatic cells such as the pancreatic stellate cells. Summary Better understanding of immune responses and signaling pathways are emerging as important contributors in pancreatitis development and progression. Such mechanisms are likely to offer future targetable therapies that can either halt or reverse disease progression. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA *Bomi Lee and Qinglan Zhao contributed equally to the writing of this article. Correspondence to Aida Habtezion, 300 Pasteur Drive, Always Bldg. M211, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Tel: +1 650 725 6511; fax: +1 650 723 5388; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.