This review aims to present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these endoscopic bariatric and metabolic procedures.
There are an increasing number of devices and techniques that are available for the endoluminal treatment of obesity. It is now possible to offer FDA approved endoscopic therapies for patients with BMI as high as 55 kg/m2. Although tremendous advances have been made, there is room for additional emphasis with regards to the metabolic improvements seen with these therapies, in addition to highlighting weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, for optimal outcomes, it is imperative that all endoluminal techniques are combined with at least a moderate intensity diet and lifestyle intervention for a minimum of 12 months.
This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Owing to its minimally invasive nature, endoscopic metabolic and bariatric therapy has the potential to appeal patients who either do not qualify or do not want bariatric surgery and have not been adequately treated with medical therapy. In addition, these therapies may be beneficial early on in the onset of obesity.
aDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
bDiversity Summer Internship Program, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
cDivision of Gastroenterology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
Correspondence to Shelby Sullivan, Mail Stop B158, Academic Office 1, 12631 E. 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Tel: +1 303 724 0017; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org