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The gut microbiome in health and in disease

Shreiner, Andrew B.a; Kao, John Y.a; Young, Vincent B.b

Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: January 2015 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 69–75
doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000139
LARGE INTESTINE: Edited by Ciarán P. Kelly and Eamonn M.M. Quigley
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Purpose of review Recent technological advancements and expanded efforts have led to a tremendous growth in the collective knowledge of the human microbiome. This review will highlight some of the important recent findings in this area of research.

Recent findings Studies have described the structure and functional capacity of the bacterial microbiome in the healthy state and in a variety of disease states. Downstream analyses of the functional interactions between the host and its microbiome are starting to provide mechanistic insights into these interactions. These data are anticipated to lead to new opportunities for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of a variety of human diseases.

Summary There is a fast growing collection of data describing the structure and functional capacity of the microbiome in a variety of conditions available to the research community for consideration and further exploration. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the functions of the microbiome and the mechanisms underlying host–microbe interactions will provide a better understanding of the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

aDivision of Gastroenterology

bDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Correspondence to Vincent B. Young, MD, PhD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Health System, 1520B MSRB I SPC 5666, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109–5666, USA. Tel: +1 734 764 2237; fax: +1 734 763 4168; e-mail: youngvi@umich.edu

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