Recipients of both solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at increased risk for infectious morbidity and mortality after transplantation due to on-going immunosuppression. Gastrointestinal infections have been increasingly reported in these populations.
Increased reports of gastrointestinal infections including bacterial infection with Clostridium difficile, viral infection with norovirus and parasitic pathogens like cryptosporidium are emerging. Risk factors identified have focused on type of transplant, transplant immunosuppression regimens and exposures. Although many events are self-limiting, significant morbidity and rare mortality are reported.
Improved diagnostic techniques have increased the reporting of several gastrointestinal infections after transplantation, affording improved understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases. Armed with this emerging data, prevention, recognition of infection and treatment strategies can be more thoroughly assessed in these at-risk populations.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Correspondence to Lara Danziger-Isakov, MD, MPH, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, ML 7017, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Tel: +1 513 636 9101; e-mail: Lara.Danziger-Isakov@cchmc.org