To provide a review of currently licensed enteric vaccines and their efficacy based on completed field trials.
In this review, we provide a brief description of the epidemiology of the most common enteric infections, in both developing and industrialized countries. We also describe the types, dosage, age-eligibility, availability, and efficacies of currently licensed vaccines, and review the results of recently completed clinical trials around the world.
Several enteric vaccines are currently available. Although some vaccines have proven highly effective in industrialized countries where the disease burden is low (so-called travelers vaccines), they have demonstrated a lower protective effect in endemic countries where the disease is more prevalent. However, due to the magnitude of disease in endemic countries, even with lower efficacy, the potential for a vaccine to reduce the absolute number of cases remains considerable. Despite the continued reduction in overall disease burden with increased public health measures, such as improved sanitation, antimicrobials, and greater public awareness, enteric infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in vulnerable populations. We contend that adoption and dissemination of available vaccines at affordable prices should be accelerated, particularly in areas where the disease burden is highest.
aCenter for Vaccine Development
bDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health
cDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Correspondence to Wilbur H. Chen, MD, MS, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W. Baltimore Street, Suite 480, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Tel: +1 410 706 5328; fax: +1 410 706 6205; e-mail: email@example.com