Purpose of review
To summarize recent advances that contribute to the development of new vaccines against gastrointestinal infections.
The main themes of this review include epidemiology assessing disease burden of enteric pathogens, increasing antibiotic resistance, positive effect of existing enteric vaccines in developed and developing countries, and recommendations of advisory bodies; antigen discovery and preclinical testing, including live vector systems expressing heterologous antigens, conjugation of antigen to carrier proteins, and plant-based expression systems; as well as clinical studies highlighting recently published enteric vaccine candidates, studies assessing immune correlates of protection, as well as a trend for technology transfer to developing countries where enteric vaccines can be produced less expensively.
It is an exciting time for the development of novel vaccines against gastrointestinal infections. Better understanding of disease burden, interest from funding sources, identification of novel antigens, better understanding of protective immune responses, and steady progress in the conduct of clinical trials make the development of new enteric vaccines a goal that is attainable in the near future.