Gastrointestinal infections: Edited by Mitchell CohenBacterial infections: new and emerging enteric pathogensSherman, Philip Ma; Ossa, Juan Ca; Wine, EytanbAuthor Information aResearch Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada bDepartment of Pediatrics, Stollery Children's Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Correspondence to Philip M. Sherman, Room 8409, Gastroenterology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada Tel: +416 813 7734; fax: +416 813 6531; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: January 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 1 - p 1-4 doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e328333d73b Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in knowledge of bacterial enteric infections. We focus on understanding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni infections, and to link these acute events with long-term consequences in a susceptible host, including irritable bowel syndrome and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Recent findings Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and C. jejuni are zoonotic infections that are acquired from exposure to tainted food (undercooked hamburger and chicken, respectively) and contaminated drinking water. Noninvasive E. coli O157:H7 elaborates Shiga-like toxins and protein effectors that are injected, via a molecular syringe that is encoded by a bacterial type 3 secretion system, into infected eukaryotic cells. Less is known about the precise virulence properties of enteroinvasive Campylobacter strains, but both enteric pathogens are able to disrupt polarized epithelial monolayers resulting in increased uptake of macromolecules and antigens. Summary An improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathobiology and mechanisms underlying infectious enterocolitides will provide the basis for developing new intervention strategies including, for example, the use of probiotics, to interrupt the infectious process. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.