At the close of the 20th century, a selection of articles published in 1999 with relevance to liver pathology reflects the wealth of technological and intellectual progress made during the span of the century. Immunohistochemical staining for hepatitis B virus antigens focused attention on a correlation between cytoplasmic expression of core antigen in individuals with precore mutants and higher activity of hepatitis. Infection of ducklings with a presurface mutant strain of duck hepatitis B virus produced cytopathic liver cell damage. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, originally described as an unusual form of recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation, has now been described in hepatitis C virus–positive patients with renal transplants. It may be related to the emergence or selection of hepatitis C virus quasispecies. In biliary tract disease, researchers investigated the canal of Hering as a possible source of hepatic stem cells, sporadic mutations in the JAGGED1 gene (involved in cell differentiation) in Alagille syndrome, and several models of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis. Further work was accomplished on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, including a proposal of a grading and staging system as well as its detection in workers exposed to volatile petrochemicals. Among hepatic neoplasms and proliferative disorders, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, angiomyolipoma and Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis received coverage in articles describing the diagnostic pathology in collected series of patients.