Small intestineSmall bowel transplantationPrasad, K. Rajendra MCh, FRCS; Pollard, S.G. MA, MS, FRCSAuthor Information Department of Organ Transplantation, St. James’s University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom Correspondence to K. Rajendra Prasad, Department of Organ Transplantation, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, LEEDS LS7 9TF, UK Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: March 2000 - Volume 16 - Issue 2 - p 126-133 Buy Abstract The development of small bowel transplantation has long been hindered by the immunological and infectious barriers peculiar to the small bowel. Gradual progress has been achieved during the past decade with the use of tacrolimus and the availability of better anti-infection prophylaxis. The current status of small bowel transplantation as a life-saving option for patients failing on total parenteral nutrition and those who have developed irreversible liver failure is undisputed. Small bowel transplantation can be performed as either an intestine-only graft or as part of a composite graft with the liver and, on occasion, other organs. The various techniques of donor and recipient operations are relatively standardized. Despite the progress made, the most common causes of death and graft loss continue to be sepsis, rejection, and lymphomas. Further progress can be achieved by development of more effective immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory strategies. The role of inducing chimerism by adjuvant donor-specific bone marrow transfusions to promote graft tolerance is uncertain. Until the mortality and graft losses are further reduced, the role of small bowel transplantation will be limited to a salvage procedure for failure of total parenteral nutrition rather than a primary treatment of intestinal failure. © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.