The world's literature regarding vascular lesions of the esophagus is focused again on the diagnosis, management, and clinical outcome of patients with varices secondary to portal hypertension. Novel diagnostic modalities, in addition to endoscopic visualization, are described for gastroesophageal varices. Reports of medical management with infusion of vasoactive agents, minimally invasive management with endoscopy, or radiologic techniques continue to expand. Orthotopic liver transplantation is the surgical procedure of choice in patients with varices and end-stage liver disease; portal systemic shunting and devascularization procedures are declining but continue to be studied in some centers and remain a treatment alternative. Only small descriptive accounts are found in the literature regarding endoscopically identified esophageal vascular lesions, other than varices.
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