Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a chronic liver condition characterized by insulin resistance and hepatic fat accumulation, in the absence of other identifiable causes of fat accumulation, such as alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, medications like corticosteroids and estrogens, and other conditions [1••]. Hepatic steatosis may range from a ‘benign’ indolent deposition of fat to severe lipotoxicity-induced steatohepatitis with necroinflammation [known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] (Table 1). NASH is an overlooked complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that if missed may carry serious long-term consequences. NASH is frequently associated with fibrosis and approximately 10% of patients develop cirrhosis. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is also increased in patients with T2DM and NASH [2•]. Diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur more frequently in individuals with NAFLD [3••]. NAFLD may also be associated with a greater risk of renal disease in patients with T2DM . Health care costs have been long suspected to be higher in NASH patients, a finding recently confirmed in a large cohort of 4224 from Western Germany .
Unfortunately, clinicians are frequently unaware that patients with T2DM are uniquely prone to NASH because the disease is associated with few symptoms, there is a lack of sensitive noninvasive diagnostic tests, and physicians usually just rely on liver transaminases to diagnose liver disease. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are normal in most patients with NASH. Another limiting diagnostic factor is that the distinction between benign steatosis or active NASH can only be done by performing a liver biopsy, a procedure that both patients and doctors are reluctant to pursue. However, recent work has broadened our understanding of the disease and offered new treatments, suggesting that it will not be long before screening for fatty liver disease, either noninvasively or in selected cases with a liver biopsy, will be incorporated into our routine evaluation of patients in the same way that we currently do for other chronic complications of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes: a major risk factor for NASH
Using the gold-standard magnetic resonance and spectroscopy (MRS) technique for the noninvasive assessment of hepatic steatosis, the prevalence of NAFLD (defined as liver fat >5%) has been estimated to be 34% in the USA or approximately 70–80 million people . This prevalence is, however, believed to be much higher in T2DM. In our laboratory, the prevalence of NAFLD by MRS in 107 unselected patients with T2DM was 76% , which is similar to recent studies from Italy  and Brazil . Of note, most diabetic patients had normal liver transaminases . A normal AST and ALT is consistent with earlier studies suggesting that liver transaminases are frequently not increased even in the presence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis [10–12]. This has been confirmed recently in a large cohort of 458 Italian patients with biopsy-proven NASH [13•]. In this study, NASH was diagnosed in 59 and 74% of the patients with normal and increased ALT, respectively. Diabetes was the single most important predictor of NASH and fibrosis. In only those with normal ALT, NASH was strongly predicted by insulin resistance [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.7]. Therefore, normal ALT levels should not preclude the clinician from pursuing an histological diagnosis if the disease is suspected. Considering that up to 40% of adults with NAFLD have progressive liver damage [1••] and that the majority of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis are diabetic [14,15•], it follows that NASH in T2DM must be frequently missed until it is too late and end-stage liver disease develops.
In the largest (n = 129) and longest follow-up (13.7 ± 1.3 years) study of patients with NASH, Ekstedt et al. reported that survival was significantly reduced. Decreased survival was due to cardiovascular and liver-related causes, including end-stage liver disease (5.4%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (2.3%). In a recent study in children with NAFLD (mean age = 13.4 years) 40% had progression of fibrosis in a follow-up liver biopsy at 28 months . This is of concern as the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing in children and adolescents, particularly in Hispanics . Once again, it is likely that NASH may develop early in life in an increasing number of children and that the window of opportunity for intervention is overlooked by many physicians.
As with adults, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in children with NAFLD [19•,20] and is a strong predictor of future NASH and fibrosis [1••]. In a recent large analysis in 827 patients, advanced fibrosis was closely related to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes [21•]. Obesity and T2DM share a ‘metabolic soil’ that promotes hepatocyte lipotoxicity: adipose tissue insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and abnormal glucose metabolism . Perseghin et al. recently reported an association between hepatic and cardiac triglyceride accumulation, with a close correlation between the development of NAFLD and abnormalities in left ventricular energy metabolism. Of interest, treatment with pioglitazone reduces both hepatic and myocardial steatosis , suggesting that lipotoxicity is a common metabolic abnormality to both tissues.
Recent developments in the diagnosis of NASH
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is most commonly diagnosed by a combination of clinical, laboratory, and imaging studies (Table 1). Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging tool, but its sensitivity is poor at low to moderate degrees of steatosis and it decreases further with increasing central adiposity [1••,25]. At present, MRS is the most reliable imaging technique for hepatic fat steatosis [6,26,27], having found in our hands a close correlation with fat estimated from liver biopsies in patients with NASH (K. Cusi, et al., unpublished). Unfortunately, no imaging technique can replace a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of NASH. A liver biopsy may be a reasonable approach to diagnose NASH and stage the disease in individuals who are at the highest risk of disease progression such as in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and/or T2DM, if the information obtained will prompt a more aggressive treatment approach.
There is an active search for more practical ways to study the large numbers of patients with NAFLD and T2DM. Efforts include the use of plasma biomarkers [28–30,31••] and imaging by transient elastography [32•,33]. A promising biomarker is the measurement of plasma cytokeratin-18 fragments (marker of hepatocyte apoptosis), which has been reported to be increased in patients with NASH compared to those with simple steatosis or normal livers  and reduced with pioglitazone treatment in association with histological improvement. The use of transient elastography has recently shown a good correlation between liver ‘stiffness’ by this imaging technique and fibrosis stage , including in pediatric populations [36••]. These approaches are promising but await more definitive validation in larger and more diverse populations.
NAFLD: role of adipose tissue insulin resistance, fatty acids, and lipotoxicity
Defects at multiple levels may tip the metabolic balance towards hepatic fat accumulation: excessive substrate supply to the liver (i.e. fatty acids, glucose); intrahepatic mismatch between lipid synthesis and oxidation; inadequate export to peripheral tissues; and a combination of the above. Many molecular defects at these different steps have been described in NAFLD but exceed the scope of this brief review [37–42]. Among the metabolic defects, chronic hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia as observed in T2DM are of paramount importance as they promote lipogenesis by upregulating hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein (ChREBP) activity, respectively. High carbohydrate/fructose-based diets promote de novo lipogenesis and activate harmful inflammatory pathways [i.e. c-jun N-terminal kinase (JUN)-signaling pathway] with hepatocyte apoptosis . Increased consumption of dietary carbohydrates is common in patients with NAFLD and has been recently associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of fructokinase, a key enzyme for fructose metabolism, and in fatty acid synthase, an important lipogenic enzyme . Restriction of dietary carbohydrates reduces hepatic fat  and elevated ALT  in obese patients with NAFLD.
In T2DM excessive rates of lipolysis from insulin-resistant adipose tissue is also a driving force for the development of steatosis [22,47•,48]. Adipocytes account for approximately 60–70% of the free fatty acid (FFA) used for hepatic triglyceride synthesis and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion . Many factors that regulate VLDL metabolism may promote steatosis. For example, the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis essential for the assembly of VLDL particles, has been reported to be low in obese patients with NAFLD . Down-regulation of hepatic tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by unsaturated fatty acids induces steatosis by impairing insulin signaling and affecting incorporation, esterification, and extracellular release of fatty acids, including the alteration of hepatic apoB-lipoprotein production and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) stability [51,52]. These effects are mediated by a cross-talk between the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and NF-κB . In contrast to these studies, blocking VLDL secretion alone in a mouse model of hepatic steatosis lacking MTP caused hepatic steatosis, but not hepatic necroinflammation, NF-κB activation, or insulin resistance . Taken together, these studies highlight the complex interplay between steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and tissue damage in NASH.
Liver steatosis may also be due to an altered composition of hepatic fat. Recently, Puri et al.[54•] reported an increased content of triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and of free cholesterol in NASH patients. A cholesterol-rich diet promotes steatohepatitis with activation of NF-κB signaling in hyperlipidemic mouse models , and mitochondrial toxicity with outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and hepatocellular death from mitochondrial glutathione depletion induced by free cholesterol . However, more attention has been recently placed on the toxic role of saturated FFA in the development of NASH. Human hepatocytes incubated with unsaturated fatty acids accumulate large amounts of triglyceride without harm, but saturated fatty acids (i.e. palmitate) readily cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, as they are poorly incorporated into triglyceride . Fatty acids impair insulin signaling and activate proinflammatory serine/threonine kinases and the Iκβ/NF-κB pathway, promote the accumulation of DAG, and enhance the expression of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β . Unsaturated fatty acids prevent palmitate-induced apoptosis by channeling palmitate into less harmful triglyceride pools and away from apoptotic pathways . Inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2 (the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis) in obese, diabetic db/db mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet reduces steatosis at the expense of exacerbating oxidative stress, liver injury, and fibrosis . Therefore, it appears that the target of treatment may not be steatosis per se but the prevention of saturated fatty acid formation and lipotoxicity-induced mitochondrial damage. Saturated fatty acids induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress by mechanisms dependent on lysosomal disruption and activation of cathepsin B . As proof-of-concept it has been recently shown that fatty acid-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis could be prevented by glycyrrhizin, the major bioactive component of licorice root extract, by stabilizing lysosomal membranes and inhibiting cathepsin B activity . We have found that it is the combination of elevated plasma FFA and insulin levels, as compared to either factor alone or hyperglycemia, that causes the greatest degree of hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in rodents [60•], pointing to the value of therapies that can reverse lipotoxicity for the prevention of NASH.
From adipose tissue insulin resistance to NASH: the failure to adapt to a lipotoxic environment
From the above, one may conceptually delineate several steps in the development of NASH. Still, our data are fragmented and arise largely from rodents given the natural difficulties of accessing human liver tissue. One must keep in mind that there are significant metabolic/molecular differences between livers from humans and rodents, and even between rodent species. With these limitations in mind, Fig. 1 is an effort to organize our current understanding of NAFLD and NASH in a schematic framework for hypothesis generation and future testing. This is obviously subject to rapid change as new information emerges. A prerequisite or ‘first step’ for NASH appears to be adipose tissue insulin resistance, providing the necessary ‘lipotoxic environment’ that ensures ample substrate supply to the liver (i.e. high FFA flux) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that stimulates lipogenesis. The ‘second step’ towards NASH is the development of hepatic steatosis and of a lipid pool from where lipid-derived toxic metabolites may activate inflammatory pathways. Dietary and genetic factors [61,62•] may condition the metabolic adaptation of the liver to this harmful environment, particularly of several mitochondrial-related energy regulators, such as 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR)- γ, PPAR-α, and others, such as adiponectin [63,64]. Plasma adiponectin levels are low in patients with T2DM with NASH . Administration of adiponectin to steatotic mice dramatically alleviates hepatomegaly, fat accumulation, and inflammation by increasing carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-I activity and enhancing hepatic fatty acid oxidation while inhibiting fatty acid synthesis . Zhou et al. recently reported that in adiponectin knockout mice impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity can be completely overturned by adiponectin replenishment, with reversal of steatosis, accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, and down-regulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). The ‘third step’ for the progression from simple ‘bland’ steatosis to active necroinflammation depends on the ability of the liver to adapt to longstanding triglyceride accumulation. Failure would lead to FFA-induced lipotoxicity with mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and chronic necroinflammation. Fibrosis is the final or ‘fourth step’, involving chronic activation of hepatic stellate cells in a yet poorly understood cross-talk of Kupffer cells with hepatocytes . Of note, recent evidence indicates that adiponectin inhibits effect hepatic stellate cell activation , highlighting a potential therapeutic target and the multiple roles of this hormone in NASH.
Treatment of NAFLD
The current view of NAFLD as a serious condition with potential for considerable morbidity and mortality has stimulated the search for strategies ranging from lifestyle changes to a variety of pharmacological interventions.
Weight loss and lifestyle intervention
Most weight-loss studies in NAFLD/NASH are pilot studies of short duration (2–12 months) and limited success, reporting a decrease in hepatic steatosis and liver transaminases, but with modest improvement in necroinflammation or fibrosis [26,68,69•]. Reduction of visceral fat may be a particularly important target, as recent studies suggest a close relationship between visceral fat and hepatic steatosis [26,27], as well as with inflammation, and even fibrosis [26,27,70].
Bariatric surgery is gaining momentum for the treatment of obesity associated with comorbidities such as T2DM and NASH, with long-term reports of reduction in overall mortality . In NASH, results have been encouraging in terms of histological improvement  and are not associated with a paradoxical exacerbation of liver inflammation and fibrosis as reported in earlier series .
Pharmacological interventions in NAFLD and NASH
As listed in Table 2, a number of pharmacological interventions have been tried in NAFLD/NASH but with overall limited benefit [1••]. Antioxidant agents may arrest lipid peroxidation and cytoprotective agents stabilize phospholipid membranes, but agents tried unsuccessfully or with modest benefit so far include: ursodeoxycholic acid [74,75], vitamin E (α tocopherol) and C [76–78], and pentoxifilline , among others. Weight-loss agents such as orlistat have had no significant benefit compared to weight loss alone [80,81]. Recent interest in angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) arises from their potential to modulate activated hepatic stellate cells responsible for collagen synthesis and hepatic fibrosis. Kurita et al. recently reported that in obese, diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, olmesartan reversed steatohepatitis and fibrosis induced by a MCD diet. A modest effect on ALT and/or fibrosis has been reported in recent small studies with losartan , olmesartan [84,85], and telmisartan [84,86], although no randomized controlled trials are yet available. Inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (which activates hepatic stellate cells) appears as another interesting target. In obese diabetic OLETF rats the anti-TGF-beta agent Tranilast or N-(3′,4′-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-anthranilic acid successfully prevented activation of hepatic stellate cells, down-regulated the expression of TGF-beta and TNF-α-dependent genes, and attenuated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis .
Statins have not been examined in large controlled prospective trials, but their use appears to be overall safe if patients with NASH are closely followed [88–90]. In small uncontrolled trials modest or no benefit has been reported with the use of other lipid-lowering agents such as fibrates , omega-3 fatty acids , or probucol, a lipid-lowering drug with antioxidant effects .
The shared metabolic abnormalities of T2DM and NAFLD help explain the greater success in NASH of agents used to treat diabetes. Metformin  improves elevated AST/ALT and steatosis [95–100] and to a lesser extent inflammation [97,100]. However, not all studies have seen a reduction in steatosis with metformin . We have recently found that intensive insulin therapy (basal and premeal rapid-acting insulin) in patients with T2DM and NAFLD significantly reduces hepatic steatosis as assessed by MRS , and that the substitution of premeal insulin for exenatide twice daily for 6 months can further lower hepatic fat content .
However, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have attracted the most attention for the treatment of NASH [104•]. Early small pilot studies with TZDs met variable success [78,105,106]. In the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT), we were able to show that 6 months of pioglitazone treatment improved glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, systemic inflammation [plasma C-reactive protein (hsCRP), TNF-α, and TGF-β, among others], and liver histology in patients with NASH and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2DM . Treatment ameliorated adipose, hepatic, and muscle insulin resistance and was associated with a significant approximately 50% decrease in necroinflammation (P < 0.002) and a 37% reduction of fibrosis within the pioglitazone-treated group, although this did not reach statistical significance when compared with placebo (P = 0.08) (Fig. 2). These results generated considerable interest on the role of TZDs in NASH [107,108]. Improvement in hepatocellular injury and fibrosis has been recently reported in another controlled trial with pioglitazone [109•]. Importantly, there was no alteration in total body water volume or water retention in our clinical trial when measured by three different state-of-the-art techniques, suggesting that its use is overall safe in this population in the absence of preexisting heart failure .
In the first RCT with rosiglitazone in NASH, this TZD also reduced plasma ALT levels and steatosis, but had no significant effect on necrosis, inflammation, or fibrosis [111•]. A preliminary report of the 2-year, open-label follow-up of this trial has also been disappointing with no significant benefit from rosiglitazone treatment . The reasons for these discrepant results compared to pioglitazone remain unclear, but may include intrinsic pharmacological differences (i.e. as shown for their cardiovascular profile) or in the populations studied [104•]. Ongoing longer-term clinical trials with pioglitazone in predominantly nondiabetic (PIVENS trial) or diabetic (K. Cusi, et al., unpublished) patients will teach us more about the long-term safety and efficacy of TZDs in NASH.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is no longer considered a benign condition in patients with T2DM. The possibility of fatty liver disease should be entertained as a part of the routine evaluation of patients with T2DM, in the same way we search for microvascular complications and CVD. Awareness by healthcare providers is essential for an early diagnosis and timely implementation of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. A normal plasma ALT or AST level should not mislead clinicians into dismissing the possibility of fatty liver disease as transaminases in most patients are not elevated. New laboratory and imaging tests promise to make the diagnosis easier than at the present time and minimize the need for a liver biopsy. Thiazolidinediones are emerging as promising agents for the treatment of NASH. However, more information is needed about their long-term safety and efficacy before the use of TZDs can be routinely recommended.
References and recommended reading
Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:
• of special interest
•• of outstanding interest
Additional references related to this topic can also be found in the Current World Literature section in this issue (pp. 194–195).
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