GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. LevitskyGrowth and development in type 1 diabetesKoren, Dorit Author Information Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Unit and Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Dorit Koren, MD, MTR, Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric Endocrinology, 55 Fruit St., Yawkey Suite 6C, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel: +1 617 726 2909; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: February 2022 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 57-64 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000694 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on the subject of linear growth in children and adolescents with or at risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Recent findings Poor glycemic control in T1DM is associated with growth hormone resistance, and improving glycemic control can improve linear growth. Newer reports suggest that the increasingly popular very low carbohydrate diets, may reduce linear growth velocity. Summary Linear growth during childhood is a complex process regulated influenced by genetic, hormonal, nutritional and environmental factors. Linear growth may be impaired in children with T1DM, correlating with poor metabolic control; an extreme example is Mauriac syndrome. This decrement in linear growth appears to be driven in part by a reduction in growth hormone responsiveness, leading to low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Improving glycemic control can lead to improved IGF-1 levels and linear growth. Other factors associated with poor linear growth in T1DM include celiac disease and dietary alterations, with early reports suggesting that very low carbohydrate diets, if not carefully managed, may increase risk of attenuated linear growth. This review examines the latest data regarding the associations between T1DM and linear growth in children. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.