GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. LevitskyGrowth and development in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetesHammoud, Batoul; Greeley, Siri Atma W. Author Information Section of Adult and Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, and Kovler Diabetes Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Siri Atma W. Greeley, Section of Adult and Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism and Kovler Diabetes Center, The University of Chicago, 900 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: February 2022 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 65-77 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000699 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare disorder in which 80–85% of infants diagnosed under 6 months of age will be found to have an underlying monogenic cause. This review will summarize what is known about growth and neurodevelopmental difficulties among individuals with various forms of NDM. Recent findings Patients with NDM often have intrauterine growth restriction and/or low birth weight because of insulin deficiency in utero and the severity and likelihood of ongoing growth concerns after birth depends on the specific cause. A growing list of rare recessive causes of NDM are associated with neurodevelopmental and/or growth problems that can either be related to direct gene effects on brain development, or may be related to a variety of co-morbidities. The most common form of NDM results in spectrum of neurological disability due to expression of mutated KATP channels throughout the brain. Summary Monogenic causes of neonatal diabetes are characterized by variable degree of restriction of growth in utero because of deficiency of insulin that depends on the specific gene cause. Many forms also include a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disability because of mutation-related effects on brain development. Longer term study is needed to clarify longitudinal effects on growth into adulthood. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.