REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy KuohungAnti-müllerian hormone in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndromeDumont, Agathe; Robin, Geoffroy; Dewailly, DidierAuthor Information Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et de Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU, Lille, France Correspondence to Didier Dewailly, MD, Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et de Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU, 2 Avenue Eugène Avinée, 59037 Lille, France. Tel: +33 32 0446309; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: December 2018 - Volume 25 - Issue 6 - p 377-384 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000445 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism in young women and represents a true public health concern and an economic burden. Recent findings The pathophysiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but progresses have been made and the relationships between anti mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, E2 and androgens have been explored. The follicle excess plays a central role in the syndrome and AMH is definitively a major component of this phenomena. Summary The aim of this chapter is to present the recent work studying the role of AMH in the pathophysiology of PCOS and to discuss the improvement that serum AMH assay brings in the diagnosis of PCOS. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.