GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian WeberCarcinoid-syndrome: recent advances, current status and controversiesIto, Tetsuhidea; Lee, Lingakub,c; Jensen, Robert T.cAuthor Information aNeuroendocrine Tumor Centre, Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, International University of Health and Welfare bDepartment of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan cDigestive Diseases Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Dr Robert T. Jensen, Digestive Diseases Branch, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 10, Room 9C-103, Bethesda, MD 20892-1804, USA. Tel: +1 301 496 4201; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: February 2018 - Volume 25 - Issue 1 - p 22-35 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000376 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To review recent advances and controversies in all aspects of carcinoid-syndrome. Recent findings Over the last few years there have been a number of advances in all aspects of carcinoid syndrome as well as new therapies. These include new studies on its epidemiology which demonstrate it is increasing in frequency; increasing insights into the pathogenesis of its various clinical manifestations and into its natural history: definition of prognostic factors; new methods to verify its presence; the development of new drugs to treat its various manifestations, both initially and in somatostatin-refractory cases; and an increased understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history and management of carcinoid heart disease. These advances have generated several controversies and these are also reviewed. Summary There have been numerous advances in all aspects of the carcinoid-syndrome, which is the most common functional syndrome neuroendocrine tumors produce. These advances are leading to new approaches to the management of these patients and in some cases to new controversies. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.