PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Vin TangprichaFGF-23 and cardiovascular disease: review of literatureBatra, Jasveen; Buttar, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Pardeep; Kreimerman, Jacqueline; Melamed, Michal L.Author Information Department of Medicine/Nephrology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA Correspondence to Michal L. Melamed, MD, MHS, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 615, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Tel: +1 718 430 3158; fax: +1 718 430 8963; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: December 2016 - Volume 23 - Issue 6 - p 423-429 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000294 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review examines associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and cardiovascular disease. Recent findings FGF-23 is a hormone produced by osteocytes and osteoblasts that aids with phosphate excretion by the kidney and acts as a negative feedback regulator for activated vitamin D synthesis. Recent studies have found associations between elevated FGF-23 levels and a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular events and mortality. Conclusion Recent studies have explored the possible effects of FGF-23 on the cardiovascular system. In animal and observational human studies, there is a link between elevated FGF-23 levels and multiple cardiovascular outcomes, including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular events and mortality. Further studies are required to evaluate whether decreasing FGF-23 levels improves cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.