GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian WeberGlucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide new advancesGallwitz, BaptistAuthor Information Department of Medicine IV, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany Correspondence to Professor Baptist Gallwitz, Department of Medicine IV, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72072 Tübingen, Germany. Tel: +49 7071 29 82093; fax: +49 7071 29 5004; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity: February 2016 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p 23-27 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000217 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are gastrointestinal peptides that play an important role as incretin hormones in the regulation of plasma glucose and insulin secretion. GLP-1-based therapies have therefore been implemented as treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this review is to summarize novel treatment options for T2D with GLP-1-based therapies. In addition, both peptides have relevant extrapancreatic effects that have been further characterized recently and are summarized in this review. Recent findings Novel findings regarding changes in GLP-1 secretion after bariatric surgery are highlighted, wherein GLP-1 plays a role in promoting body weight loss and diabetes remission. For T2D therapy, novel options with long-acting GLP-1 analogs are summarized that show a good efficacy and safety profile, also in combination with insulin as well as for obesity treatment. As GIP is not suitable for T2D therapy, extrapancreatic effects of GIP, mainly on bone metabolism that have been characterized recently, are described. These show that the activated GIP receptor is important to allow optimal bone mass and structure. Summary This review summarizes new findings on the physiology and pathophysiology of GLP-1 and GIP and novel therapeutic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.