PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Vin TangprichaAcromegaly and bone diseaseAnthony, Jeremy R.a; Ioachimescu, Adriana G.a,b Author Information aDivision of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine bDepartment of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Correspondence to Adriana G. Ioachimescu, MD, PhD, 1365 B Clifton Rd., NE, B6209, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Tel: +1 404 778 5969; fax: +1 404 778 4472; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity 21(6):p 476-482, December 2014. | DOI: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000109 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To provide an update on current understanding of osteoporosis associated with acromegaly. Recent findings Patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of morphometric vertebral fractures. This seems to correlate with acromegaly activity and its duration, but it persists after biochemical control is achieved. Coexistent hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus and over-replacement with glucocorticoids have additional detrimental effects. Bone mineral density can be normal, increased or decreased, and is usually discordant with occurrence of fractures. However, a decrease in the hip bone mineral density during follow-up has been associated with development of new vertebral fractures. Bone turnover markers are increased and tend to normalize after biochemical control of acromegaly. Hypercalcemia rarely occurs in acromegaly and may be parathyroid hormone-dependent or 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D dependent. The latter improves with biochemical control of acromegaly. Summary Screening with thoracic and lumbar vertebral radiographs is indicated in patients with acromegaly. We recommend biochemical control of acromegaly, treatment of hypogonadism and other risk factors of osteoporosis and avoiding supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoids. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms of skeletal fragility in acromegaly and clinical impact of vertebral fractures. Further studies of tailored therapy for patients with acromegaly and osteoporosis are also needed. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.