Advances in the assessment of cortisol exposure and sensitivityWester, Vincent L.; Lamberts, Steven W.J.; van Rossum, Elisabeth F.C.Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity: August 2014 - Volume 21 - Issue 4 - p 306–311 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000077 NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Whitney Woodmansee Abstract Author Information Purpose of review To review recent progress in the field of cortisol exposure and sensitivity, and its implications for research concerning obesity and related metabolic disturbances. Recent findings In the past few years, scalp hair analysis had been successfully introduced as a marker for long-term cortisol exposure. With this relatively novel method, increased long-term cortisol levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and stress-related measures. At the tissue level, the effect of cortisol is modulated by genetically determined glucocorticoid sensitivity. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor gene that influence glucocorticoid sensitivity have been associated with differences in metabolic syndrome components. Summary Hair analysis provides exciting new opportunities to study the influence of long-term cortisol exposure on a wide range of health outcomes, in both observational and interventional studies. We propose that addition of genetically determined glucocorticoid sensitivity to these studies may bring about a more thorough understanding of the long-term effects of cortisol. Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Correspondence to Elisabeth F.C. van Rossum, Erasmus MC, Room D428, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 10 7033972; fax: +31 10 7034768; e-mail: email@example.com Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.