THE SURGICAL PATIENT: Edited by Craig CoopersmithIntra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndromeDe Waele, Jan J.a,b Author Information aDepartment of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University bDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Correspondence to Jan J. De Waele, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, Ghent 9000, Belgium. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: December 2022 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 695-701 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000991 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) has been acknowledged as an important contributor to organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, both in surgical and medical conditions. As our understanding of the pathophysiology evolves, risk factors are better recognized, preventive measures can now be implemented and therapeutic interventions tailored to the physiology of the patient. In the current review, we want to highlight developing insights in the epidemiology and treatment of patients with IAH and ACS. Recent findings The impact of IAH and ACS on kidney function and other outcomes continues to draw attention in recent studies. New methods for IAP measurement are under development, and the search for biomarkers to detect IAH or ACS continues. In conditions wherein IAH and ACS are common, recent studies allow better prevention and treatment of these conditions, based on the contemporary ICU management consisting of IAP measurement, judicious fluid resuscitation and decompressive laparotomy where necessary. Surgical treatment options including open abdomen therapy continue to be improved with demonstrable impact on outcomes. Summary In this manuscript, we provide an overview of recent insights and developments in the epidemiology, monitoring and treatment of patients with IAH and/or ACS. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.