CARDIOPULMONARY MONITORING: Edited by Jeanine P. Wiener-KronishCardiac output monitoring – invasive and noninvasiveArya, Virendra K.; Al-Moustadi, Waiel; Dutta, Vikas Author Information Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Correspondence to Virendra K. Arya, MD, FRCPC, Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, L2035, Saint Boniface Hospital, L2035, 409 Tache Ave, Winnipeg R2H 2A6, Canada. Tel: +1 204 891 5671; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: June 2022 - Volume 28 - Issue 3 - p 340-347 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000937 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to review various contemporary cardiac output (CO) measurement technologies available and their utility in critically ill patients. Recent findings CO measurement devices can be invasive, minimally invasive, or noninvasive depending upon their method of CO measurement. All devices have pros and cons, with pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) being the gold standard. The invasive techniques are more accurate; however, their invasiveness can cause more complications. The noninvasive devices predict CO via mathematical modeling with several assumptions and are thus prone to errors in clinical situations. Recently, PAC has made a comeback into clinical practice especially in cardiac intensive care units (ICUs). Critical care echocardiography (CCE) is an upcoming tool that not only provides CO but also helps in differential diagnosis. Lack of proper training and nonavailability of equipment are the main hindrances to the wide adoption of CCE. Summary PAC thermodilution for CO measurement is still gold standard and most suitable in patients with cardiac pathology and with experienced user. CCE offers an alternative to thermodilution and is suitable for all ICUs; however, structural training is required. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.