GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM: Edited by Jan J. De WaelePriorities in peritonitisMontravers, Philippea,b,c; Assadi, Maksuda,c; Gouel-Cheron, Auréliea,c,d,e Author Information aUniversité de Paris, UFR Denis Diderot bINSERM UMR 1152 cAnesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Pole PARABOL, AP-HP dAntibody in Therapy and Pathology, Pasteur Institute, UMR 1222 INSERM, Paris, France eBiostatistics Research Branch, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Correspondence to Philippe Montravers, MD, PhD, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, 46 Rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France. Tel: +33 140256024; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care 27(2):p 201-207, April 2021. | DOI: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000805 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Timely and adequate management are the key priorities in the care of peritonitis. This review focuses on the cornerstones of the medical support: source control and antiinfective therapies Recent findings Peritonitis from community-acquired or healthcare-associated origins remains a frequent cause of admission to the ICU. Each minute counts for initiating the proper management. Late diagnosis and delayed medical care are associated to dramatically increased mortality rates. The diagnosis of peritonitis can be difficult in these ICU cases. The signs of organ failures are more relevant than biological surrogates. A delayed source control and a late anti-infective therapy are of critical importance. The quality of source control and medical management are other key elements of the prognosis. The conventional rules applied for sepsis are applicable for peritonitis, including hemodynamic support and anti-infective therapy. Growing proportions of multidrug resistant pathogens are reported from surgical samples, mainly related to Gram-negative bacteria. The increasing complexity in the care of these critically ill patients is a strong incentive for a multidisciplinary approach. Summary Early clinical diagnosis, timely and adequate source control and antiinfective therapy are the essential pillars of the management of peritonitis in ICU patients. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.