Purpose of review
A growing evidence shows that injurious spontaneous breathing, either too weak or too strong, may injure lung and diaphragm. The purpose of review is to understand why we need monitoring for safe spontaneous breathing, and to know the target value of each monitoring to preserve safe spontaneous breathing during assisted ventilation.
Lung protection sometimes goes counter to diaphragm protection. For instance, silence of respiratory muscle activity is necessary to minimize lung injury from vigorous spontaneous effort in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but it may also have a risk of diaphragm atrophy. Thus, our current goal is to preserve spontaneous breathing activity at modest level during assisted ventilation. To achieve this goal, several monitoring/techniques are now available at the bedside (e.g., plateau pressure measurement, airway occlusion pressure, end-expiratory airway occlusion, esophageal balloon manometry, electrical impedance tomography). The target value of each monitoring is vigorously being investigated, facilitating ‘safe’ spontaneous breathing effort from the perspective of lung and diaphragm protection.
We summarize why we need monitoring for safe spontaneous breathing during assisted ventilation and what the target value of each monitoring is to facilitate ‘safe’ spontaneous breathing during assisted ventilation.