RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Edited by Giacomo BellaniBiomarkers in acute respiratory distress syndromeJabaudon, Matthieua,b,c; Blondonnet, Raikoa,b; Ware, Lorraine B.c,dAuthor Information aDepartment of Perioperative Medicine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand bGReD, CNRS, INSERM, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France cDivision of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine dDepartment of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Correspondence to Matthieu Jabaudon, MD, PhD, Department of Perioperative Medicine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CNRS UMR 6293, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France. Tel: +33 473 750 501;. fax: +33 473 750 500; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: February 2021 - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - p 46-54 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000786 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This article provides an overview of protein biomarkers for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and their potential use in future clinical trials. Recent findings The protein biomarkers studied as indices of biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS may have diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Recently, they also proved useful for identifying ARDS phenotypes and assessing heterogeneity of treatment effect in retrospective analyses of completed clinical trials. Summary This article summarizes the current research on ARDS biomarkers and provides insights into how they should be integrated as prognostic and predictive enrichment tools in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.