Purpose of review
To describe current antimicrobial resistance in ESKAPE Gram-negative microorganisms and their situation in the ICUs, the implication of the so-called high-risk clones (HiRCs) involved in the spread of antimicrobial resistance as well as relevance of the COVID-19 pandemic in the potential increase of resistance.
Extended-spectrum and carbapenemase producing Enterobacterales and multidrug and extensive drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have increased worldwide. Sequence type (ST)131 Escherichia coli, ST258, ST11, ST10, ST147 and ST307 Klebsiella pneumoniae, ST111, ST175, ST235 and ST244 P. aeruginosa HiRCs are responsible for this increase in the ICUs, and some of them are implicated in the emergence of resistance mechanisms affecting new antimicrobials. A similar situation can be found with European clonal complex 1 and clonal complex 2 of A. baumannii. The high use of antimicrobials during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in ICUs, might have a negative influence in future trends of antimicrobial resistance.
The increase of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs is mainly due to the spread of HiRCs and is exemplified with the ESKAPE Gram-negative microorganisms. The COVID-19 pandemic might have a negative impact in the increase of antimicrobial resistance and should be monitored through specific surveillance studies in ICUs.