CARDIOPULMONARY MONITORING: Edited by Jan BakkerFocused ultrasonography for septic shock resuscitationNikravan, Saraa; Song, Pingpinga; Bughrara, Nibrasb; Díaz-Gómez, José L.cAuthor Information aDepartment of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington bCritical Care Echocardiography Training Program, Anesthesia Critical Care Division, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York cDivision of Cardiovascular Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine/Critical Medicine Services, Texas Heart Institute, Baylor St Luke's Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA Correspondence to Sara Nikravan, Associate Professor of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine; Director of Point of Care Ultrasound; Associate Director, Residency Program, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Tel: +1 214 282 9774; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Critical Care: June 2020 - Volume 26 - Issue 3 - p 296-302 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000730 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Severe sepsis with septic shock is the most common cause of death among critically ill patients. Mortality has decreased substantially over the last decade but recent data has shown that opportunities remain for the improvement of early and targeted therapy. This review discusses published data regarding the role of focused ultrasonography in septic shock resuscitation. Recent findings Early categorization of the cardiovascular phenotypes with echocardiography can be crucial for timely diagnosis and targeted therapy of patients with septic shock. In the last few years, markers of volume status and volume responsiveness have been investigated, serving as valuable tools for targeting volume therapy in the care of both spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. In tandem, investigators have highlighted findings of extravascular volume with ultrasonographic evaluation to compliment de-escalation of resuscitation efforts when appropriate. Furthermore, special attention has been given to resuscitation efforts of patients in septic shock with right ventricular failure. Summary Severe sepsis with septic shock is an insidious disease process that continues to take lives. In more recent years, data have emerged suggesting the utility of bedside ultrasonography for early cardiovascular categorization, goal directed resuscitation, and appropriate cardiovascular support based on its changing phenotypes. Copyright © 2020 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.