Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SI-AKI) represents the first cause of AKI in ICUs, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) is frequently applied in advanced AKI stages. The debate between ‘rescue’ indications for RRT start in patients with severe AKI (acidosis, hyperkalemia, uremia, oliguria/anuria, volume overload) and a proactive RRT initiation is still ongoing. In addition, current SI-AKI pathophysiologic theory has identified the toxic effects of soluble middle-molecules released during sepsis and inflammation (pathogen and damaged associated molecular patterns).
The purpose of the present review is to summarize the recent literature on RRT for patients with SI-AKI. Supportive or replacement measures for severe stages of renal dysfunction and blood purification techniques for sepsis syndrome will be reviewed.
Anticipated RRT for SI-AKI does not seem to improve survival or renal recovery. There is no clinical advantage by delivering continuous RRT at high doses for blood purification purposes. Similarly, specific applications with dedicated devices and membranes have yielded no clinical benefit in these patients, so far.
In the present review, the recent insights and results from large randomized and nonrandomized trials in the area of RRT applied both as supportive measures for kidney failure and blood purification techniques are described.
aDepartment of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence
bDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome
cDepartment of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, San Bortolo Hospital
dInternational Renal Research Institute of Vicenza (IRRIV), Vicenza, Italy
Correspondence to Zaccaria Ricci, Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio, 4, 00165 Rome, Italy. Tel: +39 0668592449; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org