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Risk stratification and treatment of ICU-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug- resistant/extensively drug-resistant/pandrug-resistant bacteria

Bassetti, Matteo; Righi, Elda; Vena, Antonio; Graziano, Elena; Russo, Alessandro; Peghin, Maddalena

Current Opinion in Critical Care: October 2018 - Volume 24 - Issue 5 - p 385–393
doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000534
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Antoni Torres

Purpose of review Describe the risk factors and discuss the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria responsible for pneumonia among critically ill patients, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobactericeae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobactericeae, multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

Recent findings Multiple factors have been associated with infections because of MDR bacteria, including prolonged hospital stay, presence of invasive devices, mechanical ventilation, colonization with resistant pathogens, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Management of these infections includes the prompt use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, implementation of antimicrobial stewardship protocols, and targeted active microbiology surveillance. Combination therapy and novel molecules have been used for the treatment of severe infections caused by resistant bacteria.

Summary The exponential increase of antimicrobial resistance among virulent pathogens currently represents one of the main challenges for clinicians in the intensive care unit. Knowledge of the local epidemiology, patient risk stratification, and infection-control policies remain key elements for the management of MDR infections. Results from clinical trials on new molecules are largely awaited.

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine University of Udine and Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Udine, Udine, Italy

Correspondence to Matteo Bassetti, MD, PhD, Clinica Malattie Infettive, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata, Presidio Ospedaliero Universitario Santa Maria della Misericordia, Piazzale Santa Maria della Misericordia 15, 33100 Udine, Italy. Tel: +39 432 559355; fax: +39 432 559360; e-mail:

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