RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Edited by Marco RanieriMechanical ventilation for childrenConti, Giorgio; Piastra, Marco Author Information Department of Pediatric ICU, Intensive Care and Anesthesia, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy Correspondence to Giorgio Conti, Department of Pediatric ICU, Intensive Care and Anesthesia, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: February 2016 - Volume 22 - Issue 1 - p 60-66 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000271 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this review is to analyze innovative data pertaining to the clinical use of mechanical ventilation for children. Recent findings The optimal definition and treatment of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, the application of innovative ventilation modes in children to optimize child/ventilator interaction, and pediatric noninvasive ventilation, including specific interfaces, have been recently evaluated in the literature. Summary Despite the improvement observed in the last decades in the treatment of pediatric acute respiratory failure and the diffusion of innovative modes of mechanical ventilation, there are no clear and consistent guidelines for the use of mechanical ventilation for children. In several areas data are still lacking, and in many others they are extrapolated from studies performed in adults; the direct evaluation of results obtained from studies specific to the pediatric population is therefore crucial. Copyright © 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.