Although advances in critical care management and liver transplantation have improved survival in acute liver failure (ALF), mortality remains significant. An evidence base to support management has been lacking, due to the condition's rarity, severity and heterogeneity. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the latest evidence, updating clinicians on the current understanding of the best management.
Transplant-free survival in acetaminophen-related ALF has improved considerably, such that reconsidering thresholds for transplant is required, perhaps utilizing biomarkers of liver regeneration. Autoimmune hepatitis-related ALF may be too advanced to permit rescue with corticosteroids, which could be deleterious in the sickest patients. Acute kidney injury is commoner in ALF than previously suspected. Intracranial pressure monitoring does not appear to alter mortality. Despite altered traditional indices of coagulation, new thrombin generation assays suggest a rebalanced coagulation in liver failure. Antimicrobial prophylaxis may not be required in all patients. Liver support systems remain controversial and require further evaluation.
Traditional dogma in ALF management is questioned: transplant thresholds for acetaminophen overdose, steroid use in autoimmune ALF, routine antimicrobial prophylaxis, the coagulopathy of liver disease, the value of intracranial pressure monitoring and extracorporeal liver support.
Liver Intensive Therapy Unit, Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK
Correspondence to Dr William Bernal, MD, Liver Intensive Therapy Unit, Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK. Tel: +44 203 299 9000; e-mail: email@example.com