The impact of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is rising and often underestimated. The epidemiology of MDROs is extremely complex and multifactorial. There is increasing antibiotic resistance, mainly related to antibiotic pressure and patients’ characteristics.
Emphasis on MDRO epidemiology is needed to better understand current strategies of prevention and management. Among them, antibiotic stewardship has been one of the most successful strategies. It is important to note that there is a controversial issue when considering community and healthcare-related infections. In addition, different strategies have been determined to find the impact and optimal use of recently launched antibiotics for MDRO treatment.
Infections with MDROs can prolong hospital stay, promote antibiotic use and prolong duration of mechanical ventilation. Some points should be further explored in clinical research such as the heterogeneity of healthcare-associated pneumonia and the need of new drug development. Resistance to non fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, rising minimum inhibitory concentration in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and spread of MDROs in patients without known risk factors suggest a review of guideline validation, taking into account ecology and severity of patient illness to provide timely and appropriate empiric therapy.
aMultidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organization, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
bCorporació Sanitária I Universitaria Parc Taulí - Hospital De Sabadell, Institut Universitari UAB, Ciber Enfermedades Respiratorias, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain
Correspondence to Ignacio Martín-Loeches, MD, PhD, St. James's Hospital, James's Street, Dublin 8, Ireland. Tel: +353 (01) 410 3000; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org