EMERGENCIES: Edited by Alan E. JonesEmergency management of severe sepsis and septic shockPuskarich, Michael A.Author Information Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA Correspondence to Michael A. Puskarich, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: August 2012 - Volume 18 - Issue 4 - p 295-300 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e328354dc16 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Numerous implementation studies have demonstrated the benefit of bundled care in the initial treatment of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, but the relative value of each component of these bundles remains uncertain. Recent studies have attempted to further define the optimal supportive and adjunctive treatments for these patients. Recent findings The choice of optimal intravenous resuscitation fluid for the emergency treatment of severe sepsis remains uncertain. Albumin appears safe, although safety concerns have arisen regarding the use of hydroxyethyl starch. Norepinephrine and vasopressin appear superior to dopamine as vasopressors of choice. Several studies have successfully incorporated lactate clearance into resuscitation strategies, albeit with differing protocols. Although corticosteroids may hasten improvement, there does not appear to be a mortality benefit in heterogeneous patients with sepsis, leaving their role uncertain. Summary Recent negative studies have questioned the role of previously promising adjunctive treatments. However, recent clinical trials and meta-analytic data continue to refine the relative importance of various components of sepsis bundles. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.