Respiratory system: Edited by Antonio PesentiSpontaneously regulated vs. controlled ventilation of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndromeMarini, John JAuthor Information University of Minnesota, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA Correspondence to John J. Marini, Regions Hospital MS 11203B, 640 Jackson Street, St. Paul, MN 55101, USA Tel: +1 651 254 3411; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Critical Care: February 2011 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 24-29 doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e328342726e Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To present an updated discussion of those aspects of controlled positive pressure breathing and retained spontaneous regulation of breathing that impact the management of patients whose tissue oxygenation is compromised by acute lung injury. Recent findings The recent introduction of ventilation techniques geared toward integrating natural breathing rhythms into even the earliest phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome support (e.g., airway pressure release, proportional assist ventilation, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist), has stimulated a burst of new investigations. Summary Optimizing gas exchange, avoiding lung injury, and preserving respiratory muscle strength and endurance are vital therapeutic objectives for managing acute lung injury. Accordingly, comparing the physiology and consequences of breathing patterns that preserve and eliminate breathing effort has been a theme of persisting investigative interest throughout the several decades over which it has been possible to sustain cardiopulmonary life support outside the operating theater. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.