Scientific advances in our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury have significantly improved the ability to monitor relevant variables in patients with acute head injury. Improvements in noninvasive and invasive cerebral monitoring, particularly cerebral oxygenation monitoring, have allowed early identification and treatment of neurologic deterioration. Cerebral monitoring has also provided an invaluable means of evaluating intensive care management and pharmacologic therapy and of predicting neurologic outcome. The most exciting advances have occurred in the development of neuroprotective therapies. For the first time, clinical trials have demonstrated a significant improvement in neurologic outcome after traumatic brain injury.
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