Purpose of review
Dietary (poly)phenolic compounds have received attention over the last 20 years as antioxidants with preventive properties against chronic diseases. However, the evidence of these effects in clinical trials is weak, mainly because of a considerable interindividual variability
. Polyphenols bioavailability is low, and gut microbiota
metabolize them into simpler metabolites. As gut microbiota
vary among individuals, such interindividual variability
should be considered as a moderating factor in clinical trials. In this review, we show evidence of interactions with gut microbiota
that help understanding polyphenols’ health effects.
Recent studies indicate that dietary polyphenols
are relevant in the modulation of gut microbiota
and that these microorganisms convert polyphenols into active and bioavailable metabolites; hence, variations in gut microbiota
can affect polyphenol activity.
The results show that study participants’ stratification by their polyphenol-metabolizing phenotypes would be necessary for clinical trials as specific metabotypes produce the bioactive metabolites responsible for the health effects. Metabotypes can also reflect the gut microbiota
composition and metabolic status, and could be biomarkers of the potential polyphenol health effects mediated through gut microbiota