Purpose of review
Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans.
Short-term intervention studies have shown divergent results wrt appetite regulation, but overall artificial sweeteners cannot be claimed to affect hunger. Data from longer term intervention studies are scarce, but together they point toward a beneficial effect of artificial sweeteners on energy intake, body weight, liver fat, fasting and postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and/or lipidemia compared with sugar. Epidemiological studies are not equivocal, but large cohort studies from the USA point toward decreased body weight and lower risk of type-2 diabetes and coronory heart diseases with increased intake of artificial sweeteners compared with sugar.
Artificial sweeteners, especially in beverages, can be a useful aid to maintain reduced energy intake and body weight and decrease risk of type-2 diabetes and CVD compared with sugars. However, confirmative long-term intervention trials are still needed.