A 24-hdr is a recall of all foods and beverages consumed in the previous day and is one of the most widely used methods to assess dietary intake. Traditionally, a trained interviewer conducts a 24-hdr; however, web-based methods have been established to collect dietary intake data. Although there is less subject burden compared with other methods, the accuracy of the 24-hdr is dependent on the memory of the respondent. Further, multiple days of intake are required to adjust for intra-individual variation to produce estimates of usual intake. Because a trained interviewer does not facilitate web-based 24-hdr, cues to promote cognitive processes must be included. Portion size images and reminders of beverage intake are generally provided in addition to probing for ‘add-ons’, which, for example, reminds the respondent to select the spread that was added to toast. As well, many tools have a summary screen, in which the respondent can view all foods/beverages reportedly consumed and provides another opportunity to add/delete items from the recall to improve accuracy. Although there is no limit to the amount of foods, combinations of foods, cooking methods, and other detailed information that can be provided to the interviewer during a traditional interviewer-administered 24-hdr, there are limits when using a web-based tool. However, most web-based tools now incorporate thousands of food items and therefore should not be seen as a significant limitation.
Owing to the expense and methodological issues surrounding usual intake when utilizing food records and 24-hdr, FFQs are often used. A FFQ is often used in research to collect data on long-term dietary intake data that generally would not be feasible using the two previous methods, and thus are very practical in epidemiologic applications. The typical FFQ contains a list of foods with options for choosing the appropriate frequency of consumption of each food. Food lists vary from only a few foods to over a hundred foods. Generally, FFQs do not allow for open-ended responses; however, an exception would be questionnaires that contain information on portion sizes. Although FFQs are an attractive method to assess usual intake, special considerations must be taken for adolescents. The cognitive ability of respondents must be taken into consideration before selecting a FFQ as the primary dietary assessment method. FFQs have been shown to be more reliable with increased age of respondents . Web-based FFQs have been shown to reduce errors associated with skipped questions or multiple responses [9▪].
Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:
1. Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. 3rd ed.New York, NY:Oxford Univeristy Press; 2012.
2▪. Foster E, Hawkins A, Simpson E, Adamson AJ. Developing an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) for use with children. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):18–25.
This study described the development of the novel interactive portion size assessment system.
3▪. Perez-Rodrigo C, Artiach Escauriaza B, Artiach Escauriaza J, Polanco Allue I. Dietary assessment
in children and adolescents
: issues and recommendations. Nutr Hosp 2015; 31 (Suppl 3):76–83.
This article detailed issues of assessing dietary intake in children and adolescents and recommendations, including the use of technology.
4▪. Adamson AJ, Baranowski T. Developing technological solutions for dietary assessment
in children and young people. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):1–4.
This editorial described the development of technological solutions for dietary assessment in children and youth.
5▪. Meeker M. Mobile Internet trends 2014: Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers; 2014 [cited 2015 March 30]. Available from: http://http://www.smartinsights.com
This report provided a summary of mobile Internet trends worldwide.
This report summarized global digital statistics.
7. Illner AK, Freisling H, Boeing H, et al. Review and evaluation of innovative technologies for measuring diet in nutritional epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41:1187–1203.
8. Long JD, Littlefield LA, Estep G, et al. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment
. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2010; 7:191–204.
9▪. Flanagan SM, Greenfield S, Coad J, Neilson S. An exploration of the data collection methods utilised with children, teenagers and young people (CTYPs). BMC Res Notes 2015; 8:61.
This manuscript provided an overview of data collection methods used in research with children and youth.
This electronic article provided a summary of the use of social media and technology of teens.
11▪. Casperson SL, Sieling J, Moon J, et al. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents
in a free-living environment: usability study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2015; 3:e30.
This manuscript described how mobile devices supplied with an app to can be used in a free-living environment to collect dietary intake from adolescents. The FRapp moves beyond purely text-based food records and includes six dietary intake input methods including the ability to capture and annotate meal images.
12. Six BL, Schap TE, Zhu FM, et al. Evidence-based development of a mobile telephone food record. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110:74–79.
13▪▪. Schap TE, Zhu F, Delp EJ, Boushey CJ. Merging dietary assessment
with the adolescent lifestyle. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):82–88.
This research showed how the mpFR was specifically designed to address the human error associated with dietary assessment. The mpFR is innovative in that images are taken and transferred directly to a server for automated analysis, which allows for both food identification and portion size estimation.
14. Schap TE, Six BL, Kerr DA, et al. Use of the mobile telephone Food Record (mpFR) does not mitigate reduced dietary intake in adolescents
. FASEB J 2010; 24:Ib329.
15. Hanning RM, Royall D, Toews JE, et al. Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire: validation with grades six to eight students. Can J Diet Pract Res 2009; 70:172–178.
This website provides access to the WEB-Q and can be used to view the tool and complete a sample survey.
17. Storey KE, McCargar LJ. Reliability and validity of Web-SPAN, a web-based method for assessing weight status, diet and physical activity in youth. J Hum Nutr Diet 2012; 25:59–68.
18▪. Food Standards Agency, Newcastle Univeristy. Development of a web-based 24-h dietary recall
tool for use by 11–24 year olds: INTAKE24, 2013 [cited 2015 March 30]. Available from: http://www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/INTAKE24
Appendix 2 Development of a web-based 24-h dietary recall
tool for use by 11–24 year olds final.pdf.
This mixed-methods study determined the usability and experience as well as validity of INTAKE24.
19▪. Moore HJ, Hillier FC, Batterham AM, et al. Technology-based dietary assessment
: development of the Synchronised Nutrition and Activity Program (SNAP). J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):36–42.
This study highlighted the qualitative and quantitative research conducted to describe both the opinions and validity of SNAP.
20▪. Biltoft-Jensen A, Trolle E, Christensen T, et al. WebDASC: a web-based dietary assessment
software for 8-11-year-old Danish children. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):43–53.
This manuscript described the development and formative evaluation of WebDASC.
21▪. Vereecken C, Covents M, Maes L, Moyson T. Formative evaluation of the dietary assessment
component of Children's and Adolescents
’ Nutrition Assessment and Advice on the Web (CANAA-W). J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):54–65.
This manuscript described the development of CANAA-W from YANA-C and YCNA-W, and its formative evaluation.
This website provides access to the ASA24 and also provides information on its use with children, the system requirements and accessibility and use.
23▪. Baranowski T, Islam N, Douglass D, et al. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall
for children. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):66–71.
This article highlighted the development of FIRSSt4 based on ASA24 as well as the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4.
This website provides access to the eaTracker tool, including its instructions and use, and is free to download.
This website provides access to the SuperTracker tool, including its instrucitons and use, and is free to download.
26▪. NutritionQuest. Data-on-Demand, 2014 [cited 2015 March 30]. Available from: http://nutritionquest.com/assessment/data-on-demand/.
This website provides an overview of NutritionQuest's data-on-demand and also includes additional information on NutritionQuest's tools and validation studies.
27. Cullen KW, Watson K, Zakeri I. Relative reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. J Am Diet Assoc 2008; 108:862–866.
28▪. Overby NC, Johannesen E, Jensen G, et al. Test-retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents
aged 13-14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Food Nutr Res 2014; 58:
This study reported the reproducibility and validity of the MoBa FFQ for use among adolescents.
29. Matthys C, Pynaert I, De Keyzer W, De Henauw S. Validity and reproducibility of an adolescent web-based food frequency questionnaire
. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107:605–610.
30▪. Filippi AR, Amodio E, Napoli G, et al. The web-based ASSO-food frequency questionnaire
: relative and absolute reproducibility assessment. Nutr J 2014; 13:119.
This research described the relative and absolute reproducibility of the ASSO-FFQ for 24 food groups, energy and 52 nutrients.
31▪. Tabacchi G, Filippi AR, Breda J, et al. Comparative validity of the ASSO-Food Frequency Questionnaire
for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents
. Food Nutr Res 2015; 59:26216.
This research reported the validity of the ASSO-FFQ for 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients.
32. Daugherty BL, Schap TE, Ettienne-Gittens R, et al. Novel technologies for assessing dietary intake: evaluating the usability of a mobile telephone food record among adults and adolescents
. J Med Internet Res 2012; 14:e58.
33. Weiss R, Stumbo PJ, Divakaran A. Automatic food documentation and volume computation using digital imaging and electronic transmission. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110:42–44.
34. Stumbo PJ. New technology in dietary assessment
: a review of digital methods in improving food record accuracy. Proc Nutr Soc 2013; 72:70–76.
35▪. Foster E, Hawkins A, Delve J, Adamson AJ. Reducing the cost of dietary assessment
: self-completed recall and analysis of nutrition for use with children (SCRAN24). J Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27 (Suppl 1):26–35.
This manuscript described the formative research for the development of SCRAN24, on which INTAKE24 was based.
36▪. National Cancer Institute. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQII), 2015 [cited 2015 March 30]. Available from: http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/dhq2